J. Edward Dowd, I. Solano Araujo, and E. Mazur. 2015. “Making sense of confusion: Relating performance, confidence, and self-efficacy to expressions of confusion in an introductory physics class.” Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res., 11, Pp. 010107-1–010107-10. Publisher's VersionAbstract
    {Although confusion is generally perceived to be negative, educators dating as far back as Socrates, who asked students to question assumptions and wrestle with ideas, have challenged this notion. Can confusion be productive? How should instructors interpret student expressions of confusion? During two semesters of introductory physics that involved Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) and research- based reading materials, we evaluated performance on reading assignments while simultaneously measuring students' self-assessment of their confusion over the preclass reading material (N = 137; N[fall] = 106, N[spring] = 88). We examined the relationship between confusion and correctness, confidence in reasoning, and (in the spring) precourse self-efficacy. We find that student expressions of confusion before coming to class are negatively related to correctness on preclass content-related questions, confidence in reasoning on those questions, and self-efficacy, but weakly positively related to final grade when controlling for these factors (β = 0.23